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October 1 - The Day of the IEEE


Thomas Alva Edison, Alexander Graham Bell, Nikola Tesla - with these great names began the history of the IEEE

Almost 130 years have passed since the distant spring 1884, when the initiative group of engineers, inventors and scientists got together to institutionalize a community of professionals working in the field of electrical engineering. Now the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers /IEEE/ is the World's professional organization. IEEE members work in all countries, on all continents. 38 societies and 12 communities of IEEE, connect all the people who are somehow related to computers. That is, all people around the globe.
Join us, be with us, grow with us, become a leader.


Anniversary of Alexei Lyapunov
 

A. A. Lyapunov’s private library keeps a Russian translation of W. Ross Ashby’s book “An Introduction to Cybernetics” published in Moscow in 1959. The fly-title page of the volume bears a handwritten dedication:

To "the father of Soviet cybernetics",
dear Alexey Andreevich Lyapunov.
28/IV­1959”,

signed by the author of the Foreword A. N. Kolmogorov, the editor V. A. Uspensky, and the translator D. G. Lahuti.
Many years have passed, and recently, in 1996, the IEEE Computer society honored Alexey Lyapunov as a Computer Pioneer who “founded Soviet cybernetics and programming”.

A. A. Lyapunov was a representative of old Russian nobility which originated numerous distinguished workers of Russian science and culture during 19th and 20th centuries. While still a young talented mathematician who already was a hero of the Great Patriotic War and a Professor of the Department of Mathematics at the Moscow Artillery Academy, Alexey Lyapunov headed, in the early ’50s, the struggle for the recognition of cybernetics in our country. In those hard times, when dogmatic Marxist philosophers denounced cybernetics as a “reactionary pseudo-science”, Lyapunov organized the first in Russia scientific seminar on cybernetics at the Moscow State University. Then he launched his famous series of collections “Problemy Kibernetiki” (“Systems Analysis”). The fearless struggle for the new science was crowned with full victory.

Alexei Lyapunov
Alexei Lyapunov
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A lot of materials and documents related to this early period of development of Soviet cybernetics as well as to A. A. Lyapunov’s activities were published in 1998 in the book “Essays on the History of Computer Science in Russia”.

In 1961, on invitation by the management of the Siberian Division of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Alexey Andreevich moved to Novosibirsk where he worked for the rest of his life. The Siberian period was one of the most fruitful in Lyapunov’s life. With the total energy so characteristic of him, Alexey Andreevich joined the organizing of cybernetic scientific teams here. He played the decisive role in the creation of the Cybernetic Department at the Institute of Mathematics and has established the Chairs of Mathematical Analysis and Theoretical Cybernetics at the Novosibirsk State University.

A. A. Lyapunov was a distinguished teacher and disseminator of scientific knowledge. His interests covered the teaching at all the stages of education, from the university down to the primary school level. Alexey Andreevich’s pedagogic activity reached its highest point at the Novosibirsk Academic Village. Together with M. A. Lavrentiev, he initiated the establishment at the Novosibirsk University of the first “Physico-Mathematical School” in our country. He also was one of the organizers of Siberian Mathematical Olympiads and Summer Physico-Mathematical Schools.

The present book is a collection of reminiscences by Alexey Andreevich’s colleagues, students, and friends related mainly to the Novosibirsk period. Some unpublished articles, letters, and other materials are also included portraying A. A. Lyapunov not only as a scientist, teacher, and public figure, but also as a remarkable person whose life was and still is a prominent example of service to the Russian science and the Russian people.

In preparation of this book, many unique materials were used including some from A. A. Lyapunov’s private archives. We have received great assistance from a lot of people, especially from relatives, friends, and co-workers of the scientist. We would like to express our deep gratitude to all of them.

Nataliya Lyapunova, Yakov Fet
Preface to boor "Alexey Andreevich Lyapunov". Novosibirsk, 2001.
From site of Novosibirsk State University - http://www.nsu.ru/

 

Anniversary of Andrei Ershov
 

Academician Andrei Petrovich Ershov was one of the early Soviet pioneers in the field of theoretical and systems programming, a founder of the Siberian School of Computer Science. His significant contributions to establishing informatics as a new branch of science and a new phenomenon of the social life are widely recognized in our country and abroad.

A.P.Ershov's fundamental research on program schematology and theory of compilation inspired a large number of his students and successors. He investigated a broad spectrum of systems programming problems: implementation of DO statement in programming languages; hash-addressing with application to the common subexpression elimination; program schemata over distributed memory; the theory and algorithms for global memory optimization, etc.

Ershov's book "A Programming Programme for the BESM Computer" was one of the world's first monographs on automatic programming.

For major contributions in the theory of mixed computation he was awarded the Academician A.N.Krylov Prize: it was the first time that a programmer received the most prestigious mathematical award of the USSR Academy of Sciences.

A.P.Ershov's works on software engineering formed the basis of this research direction in the Soviet Union.

Andrei Ershov
Andrei Ershov
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The ALPHA programming language and optimizing ALPHA compiler, the first Soviet time-sharing multiprocessor system AIST-0, the CAI system Shkol'nitsa, the electronic publishing system RUBIN and the multiprocessor workstation MRAMOR - all these projects have been initiated and directed by A.P.Ershov.

Since 1959 Andrei P. Ershov was with the Siberian Division of the USSR Academy of Sciences. He played an active role in the foundation of the Novosibirsk Computer Center. In the 60s his popular lectures greatly affected the formation of programming as a profession.

Due to a breadth of his vision and unique ability to see the perspectives, A.P.Ershov was one of the first men in our country who managed to recognize a key role of computerization in the progress of both science and society. He generated a wealth of seminal ideas which became a basis of research automation, parallel programming and artificial intelligence in our country. More than 20 years ago A.P.Ershov began to experience in teaching programming in secondary school. Initially unrecognized, these attempts evolved into the notion of computer literacy and resulted in establishing a course on informatics and computing machinery in Soviet schools.

A.P.Ershov was an outstanding organizer and active contributor of many important international conferences; he served as an Editor or a member of Editorial Board of magazin "Mikroprotsessornye Sredstva i Sistemy" ("Microprocessor Hardware and Software"), Kibernetika, Programmirovanie (all in Russian), Acta Informatica, Information Processing Letters, Theoretical Computer Science, etc. In 1974 A.P.Ershov was appointed Distinguished Fellow of the British Computer Society; in 1981 he received the Silver Core Award for services rendered to IFIP.

A.P.Ershov's brilliant speeches on both professional and general themes were always in the focus of public attention. Especially notable was his lecture on "Aesthetics and the human factors in programming" presented at AFIPS Spring Joint Computer Conference in 1972 that greatly influenced the world scientific community. The title of another paper, "Programming, the second literacy", has become a popular metaphor which is now widely used without any reference to the author. His kind mind, coupled with remarkable powers of observation and penetrating analysis made a great impact on everything he did.

Academician A.P.Ershov attended to the problems of providing of scientists with all necessary information. He collected his scientific library for all his life. When he died, in his personal library there were more than 30 thousands books, magazines, conference reports, preprints and separate prints of articles in all European languages. After A.P.Ershov death his descendants passed his library to the Institute of Informatics systems, that was separated by this time from Computation Center. Now the library became Ershov's Memorial library.

In 1988 the charitable Ershov's Fund was founded. The main aim of the Fund was development of informatics in forms of invention, creation, art and education activity.

A.P.Ershov was not only an extremely gifted scientist, teacher, and fighter for his ideas, but also a bright and many-sided person. He wrote poetry, translated the works of R.Kipling and other English poets. He enjoyed playing guitar and singing. He possessed the rare gift to care about the concerns of others. Everybody who had the pleasure of knowing and working with professor A.P.Ershov will always remember his great visions, eminent achievements and generous friendship.

From site of A.P. Ershov Institute of Informatics Systems - http://www.iis.nsk.su/en/index_en


Anniversary of Isaak Brook

November 8, 1902 is the date of birth of Isaak Brook - the outstanding Russian scientist and designer of the first Soviet and Russian computer.
Brook began his scientific career as talented engineer - researcher in the field of the electric power industry. In 1935 he became engrossed in modeling of powerful electrical machines on analog computers. He quickly achieved the outstanding results in new field of investigation. His scientific career was developed promptly. In May, 1936 he was awarded degree of Doctor of Science. In October of the same year he became professor of Moscow Power Engineering Institute.

isaak brook
Isaak Brook

The modeling of power systems required realization of the complex mathematical accounts. It led him to idea on necessity of the development of the digital computers. In 1939 he did the report on Presidium of Academy of Sciences about developed by him the mechanical integrator allowing to decide the differential equations up to the sixth order. This report was listened with the great interest. The In that time only USA and United Kingdom had by one copy of such machines. In the same year Brook was elected by the corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences.

It is necessary to note that Academy of Sciences in the Soviet Union was very influential organization. More than 100,000 people worked in research institutes, design bureaus and experimental plants of Academy of Sciences. To be the member of Academy was very honorable.

During II World War Brook developed the antiaircraft fire control systems, invented the synchronizer of an air gun allowing to shoot through rotating propeller of the aircraft.
After war he continued the work on development of new computing devices. Became interested in the publications about digital computers, which have appeared at the end of 40-s' years, Brook took active participation in scientific seminar discussing questions of computer design. In August, 1948 he presented together with his young colleague Rameev (in the further well known designer of computers, founder of a series "Ural") the project of the electronic computer. In October of the same year they submitted the detailed offers on organization in an Academy of Sciences of laboratory for electronic computers development.
A little later the State Committee of the USSR on Dissemination of Advanced Technology in the National Economy  gave out Brook and Rameev the Certificate #10475 on the invention of the digital computer with a priority from December 4, 1948. It is the first registered document concerning development of the electronic computer in the USSR. This day can be announced as birthday of the Russian computer science.
Soon however Rameev was taken away in the army. As results the rates of computer development were slowed down. As there were not the specialists of the electronic computer tools in the USSR, Brook invited young graduates and senior students Alexandridi, Kartsev, Matyukhin to continue the work on computer design.

first Soviet digital electronic computer M-1
The first Soviet digital electronic computer M-1

In April, 1950 the Presidium of Academy of Sciences approved Brook's idea about development of the digital electronic computer M-1.
The first soviet computer was designed and is assembled by young graduates and students of technical universities! Here is there name. 
Scientific staff: Alexandridi, Kartsev, Matyukhin, Zalkind. Engineers: Rogachev, Shidlovsky, Zhurkin.
All of them became subsequently great specialists in the field of computer tools.
The chief of work - professor Brook.
December 15, 1951 the director of Power Engineering Institute of the Academy of Sciences, professor, the outstanding statesman Krzhyzhanovsky signed the report for Academy of Sciences about the end of M-1 development. The first digital electronic computer in Russia and the USSR was designed and assembled!

Inspired by success Brook in April 1952 began new project - the development of M-2 computer. In half-year the new computer was assembled! Computer debugging was beginning. And to summer of the next year the computer development was ended. This computer was used for calculations in nuclear researches of Institute of Atomic Energy, for calculations on durability of dams Volga's and Samara's hydroelectric power stations, for calculations of thermodynamic and gas dynamics parameters of air for missiles launching. About the high characteristics of the computer speaks the fact that it was in use during 15 years!
Nevertheless this computer was not launched in the series. It was the result of opposition on the part of the Ministry of Machine and Instrument Building. It was the monopolist in the field of the electronic components and did not supply needed components for M-2 to push its own weaker and less reliable computer.
Almost simultaneously with designing of M-2 Brook began the development of M-3 computer. But this computer also met the strong obstacle. "The fault" of the developers was that this computer was not developed as plan work. It was developed as personal initiative, that is "illegally". Nevertheless this computer was more lucky. It became a basis for development of computer industry in Armenia, Byelorus, Hungary and China.
In 1956 Brook did the report on the session of Academy of Sciences, where he stated the main directions of industrial application of computers. In 1958 he wrote the problem memorandum "The development of the theory and principles of design and application of the specialized computing and control computers".
These documents gave the start for organization in the USSR of a number of new research institutes and design bureaues for development of control computers and systems. In particular, it was found the Institute of Electronic Control Computers (IECC) of Academy of Sciences. The director of this institute was appointed Isaak Brook. Simultaneously the Presidium Academy of Sciences named Brook as scientific chief of the problem "Development of the theory, principles of design and application of control computers
Isaak Brook was the bright person, talented organizer, very attentive man with respect to his colleagues.
Among his disciples are such well known computer designers, as Rameev ("Ural" computers), Kartsev (M-2, M-10, M-13, specialized complexes for antimissiles defense), Matyukhin (M-3, "Bowstring", the specialized computer complexes), Lopato ("Minsk" computers), Naoumov (control computers, SM computers).
Brook is the pioneer of computer development in the USSR and Russia. His works had the strongest influence on computer development in the USSR in 1940-1960th years.

November 2002


Anniversary of Sergei Lebedev


November 2, 1902 is the date of birth of Sergei Lebedev - the outstanding Russian scientist and designer of the first Soviet computers. Among his great body of work one should note especially the legendary series of BESM computers. These inexpensive, economic and reliable multi-purpose computers were used to solve both complex scientific tasks like the control of space-flight (the "Soyuz - Apollo" project) and non-traditional computer applications, such as linguistics.

Sergei Lebedev was a recipient of the IEEE's "Computer Pioneer" Award. Undoubtedly, his work had the strongest influence on the development of computer science throughout the countries of the former USSR.

sergei lebedev 
Sergei Lebedev

Sergei Lebedev began his career as an electrical engineer. He had significant scientific achievements in the field of the stability of electrical system operations. In 1939 he was awarded the degree of Doctor of Sciences for the development of the theory of "artificial stability" of electrical systems.
During II World War Lebedev worked in the field of control automation of complex systems. His group designed a weapon-aiming stabilization system for tanks and an automatic guidance system for airborne missiles. To perform these tasks Lebedev developed in 1945 an analog computer system to solve ordinary differential equations.

After the end of the war he returned to the work of improving the stability of electrical systems. For this work he received the Stalin (State) prize in 1950.
But before this, in 1948, Lebedev had found out from foreign magazines that scientists in Western countries were working on the design of electronic computers.
And though the details of these works were secret, the idea fascinated him. In the autumn of the same year he decided to focus the work of his laboratory on computer design.

sergei lebedev
Lebedev was not only a brilliant theorist and computer designer. He was also master of the soldering iron and oscilloscope

The first computer was completed by the end of 1951 and by this time Lebedev and his team has gained invaluable experience. The theoretical assumptions, the engineering hunches, the ideas, finding the necessary components in a country destroyed by war - all these were now behind them. The experimental computer was complete and Lebedev was ready to begin the design of a computer that could go into series production.
Such a machine was developed in a remarkably short time. In April 1953 the State commission accepted as operational the new high-speed BESM-1 computer, but it did not go into series production. This was because of opposition on the part of the Ministry of Machine and Instrument Building, which pushed its own weaker and less reliable machine.

Lebedev did not despair, nor wait for justice to triumph. Instead he immediately began development of a new more powerful computer - the M-20. The number in the name denoted its expected processing speed - 20 thousand operations per second. No computer anywhere in the world could run as fast at that time.
In 1958 the machine was accepted as operational and put into series production.
It was victory, and recognition. Simultaneously BESM-2, a development of BESM-1, went into series production. Though BESM-2's speed was slower than the M-20, its reliability has been acknowledged by experts. In particular, it was used to calculate satellite orbits and the trajectory of the first rocket to reach the surface of the Moon.

"star time" of soviet computer design
"Star Time" of Soviet computer design. 
The government commission has decided to put into serial production one of the best computers of 1960s – BESM-6. Chief designer Sergei Lebedev is second from the right

But, certainly, most famous, most successful was BESM - 6. This universal computer was in production for 17 years! An absolute world record.
Reliability and simplicity, low power consumption, advanced software, and good speed - that characterized it and explained its popularity and competitiveness over such a long period.
The distinctive feature of the scientific school created by Lebedev was the skill to develop computers of maximum efficiency, in spite of the low level of industrial technology and low reliability of basic computer components in the USSR. The computers designed by Lebedev stood out for their reliability in operation and low price.

Lebedev was a very purposeful man. He defined complex scientific and organizational tasks, and managed a great scientific institute. Yet on a personal level he was a modest man. His basic characteristics were fairness, trust in his staff, persistence, kindness and the complete absence of any attitude of superiority towards other people.
He always found a common language with young people. He considered personal example as the main principle of education. Lebedev paid a lot of attention to the training of scientific staff. He was the departmental Chair of computer technology in Moscow Institute of Physics and the departmental Chair of automation of electrical systems in the Moscow Power Institute.

In 1997 IEEE Computer Society recognized Sergei Lebedev by the "Computer Pioneer Award" for his pioneer works in the field of computer design and his founding of the computer industry.

November 2002

 

The Day of Russian Computer Science
Moscow. Polytechnical Museum. December 9, 2010.

A traditional "scientific readings" devoted to the Russian Computer Science Day have been held on December 9 at the Moscow Polytechnic Museum.
Computer science in Russia, in the USSR, started from the I.S Brook’s works. In August 1948 he drafted the project "Automatic digital electronic machine". Around the same time Brook together with his collaborator, engineer B. Rameev, presented the application for the invention of "Automaticdigital computer machine".
Inventor's certificate # 10475 was the first officially registered document testifying the start of computer designing in Russia, the USSR. This certificate was issued by the State Committee of the USSR on the Implementation of Advanced Technology in the National Economy on 4th December 1948.
The history of the modern informatics in the USSR and in Russia began from this data as a new science, linking the multi-millennial history of humanitarian informatics with the modern computer informatics: from the first books and the first libraries to the modern electronic devices to get access to the best scientific and cultural achievements to anywhere on the Earth at any time.


If the theater begins with a hanger, then any conference begins from a registration.

Marina Smolevitskaya explains that some of the museum treasures has had the practical value still. Hourglass shows "deadline" for the speaker very well.

The conference Chair, Sergei Prokhorov, announces the conference opening and congratulates the paticipants on the 62nd anniversary of the Russian 
Computer Science Day.

Before the conference begining there is still time to study the conference program and to exchange the opinions.

The computer science era in Russia, in Soviet Union, started from is the "Author's Certificate" for
an Automatic Digital Computer invention.
Students and graduate students were also active conference participants.

Yarmuhametov Azad told about computer "US 1007", which had a completely unique characteristics although it was the "Unified System" computer set.

Vladimir Troyanovsky told about of importance of preservation operating specimens of computers. They help to pass knowledge from one generation to another.

Vladimir Isayev’s report was dedicated to the development of the first mobile computer centers
for the Army and Front in the Soviet Union.

Valery Shilov said about counting devices of XVII - XIX centuries, designed in Russia andbecame popular in other European countries.

Polyak Yuri reported about the knowledge catalogisation developing and navigation tools since ancient times
to the present day.

Igor Lisovsky hypothesized that the first digital computer in the world was SECM launched into operation in Kiev (Ukraine) on December 24, 1951.

The Chair of the conference announces about awards of the Moscow Center of IEEE Computer Society.

Academician Vladimir Levin awards the winners.

Igor Petrov, the chief of the Department of Informatics in MIPT, receives the diplomas for student team winning in the MOST-2010.

The student’s team from MIAT took the first place in the IEEE Computer Society "Simulator Design Competition" in the category for the best system commands.

Sergeeva Tatyana is awarded for organizing an international competition MOScow Trial - 2010 (MOST-2010).

Shilov Valery (left) is awarded for the successful training of the MIAT students team, which are the multiple winners of IEEE competitions.

Proydakov Edward is awarded to the foundation of Virtual Computer Museum (pictured far left).

Smolevitskaya Marina is rewarded for organizing our annual traditional conference devoted to the Russian Computer Science Day.

Yuri Rogachev received the Appreciation Letter for his contribution to the first domestic computer designing and for a great social work.

Alexandridi Tamara is awarded to appreciation letter for her contribution to the first domestic computer designing and for a great social work..

Coffee break was after awarding.

During a conference the participants could see an exhibition dedicated to the 90 the anniversary of one of the pioneers of Russian computer science Anatoly Kitov

Tamara Alexandridi (pictured left) spoke about storage devices on the cathode-ray tubes used in the first Soviet computer M1.

Ekaterina Matyukhina reported about first computers set up under the guidance of Nikolay Matyukhin.

Nikolay Brusnetsov’s (pictured right) report was devoted to criticism of two-valued logic used in modern computers creation.

Ramil Alvarez Jose (pictured left) spoke about the scientific heritage of Professor Evgny Zhogolev, a software developer for the ternary computer “Setun”.

Alexei Kuteinikov reported about trying use of computer to control the socialist economies throughout 1960-1980 years in the USSR.

Boris Malashevich (pictured right) told about domestic works which go ahead of their time, that were forgotten and lost priorities.

Victor Denisik spoke about technical specifications that ensure the stable operation of a computer K340A, which has been used in radiolocation for 40 years.

Report of Amerbaev Vilzhan was devoted to the modular arithmetic works, the prospects for its use, and the conditions under which its use is most effective.

Victor B. Stupak told about Leningrad Polytechnic Institute works of equipment the manager complex at the "Kapustin Yar" cosmodrome.

Dmitry Podlesnykh devoted his speech to the points of Russian science growth, to the "windows of opportunity ", that appear at these points.

Report of Jaroslav Khetagurov (pictured right) was dedicated to solving safety problems in the human-machine systems development.

Vladimir Levin made the excellent report, where alternative possible ways of computing technology were planned.

Baltic International Academy. The largest private higher education institution in the Baltic and Northern Europe. More information is here.

The leader, looking at an hourglass, the museum exhibit of the XIX century: "The time has expired. See you on the our next Russian Computer Science Day – 2011.

Our partner is Mediterranean Institute of Applied Science (Cyprus). More information is here.
 

61 years anniversary of computer era in Russia

December 4, 1948 the USSR State Committee for the introduction of advanced technology in the economy gave Professor I. Brook and engineer B. Rameev patent on the invention of "an automatic digital computing machine". This is the first officially recorded document showing that Russia opens new era in its history - era of the computer technology. This day is traditionally celebrated as the birthday of Russian computer science. This day is celebrated as the birthday of Russian computer science.

December 4 in Moscow Polytechnical Museum held traditional conference on the 61 anniversary of Russian computer science.
Polytechnical Museum is one of the oldest in the world of science and technology museums, along with the French National Museum of Technology in Paris (1794), the Science Museum in London (1857) and the Deutsches Museum in Munich (1903). December 12 Polytechnical Museum celebrated 137 years.

Polytechnical Museum lesson in museum history of computer science Sergeeva Tatiana

The main thesis of V. Shilov report "Information Science and Policy during the thaw" - is statement of the fact that ideological dogmas and political pressure over science in the Soviet period, hindered the development of science and industry, which led eventually to the collapse of the system.
This thesis has been criticized by T. Aleksandridi, who indicated that these dogmas have not played significant role in everyday work, but science and technology in the Soviet Union developed very successfully unlike current days, when we live in a totally non-ideological country.

Prokhorov Sergei Shilov Valery Alexandridi Tomara

Report of V. Isaev "Pages of the history of computers. The M-100 computer "was devoted to military cybernetics, as well as to outstanding role that played in its development of A. Kitov.
S. Oganzhanyan in his speech noted that the ideological press undoubtedly existed in Soviet time and pointed to the dramatic fate of A. Kitov, who had been persecuted merely for their proposal to establish a network of computer centers for collective use.
Report E. Ruzaykina "From the history of domestic medical cybernetics" was dedicated to the pioneers of computer application in medicine.
The report K. Kurbakova "Computers yesterday and today," noted that Russian computers were quite competitive in comparison with Western computers, but the gap has become critical, when Russia began try to copy Western technology.

Isaev V,, Ruzaikin E. Ogadzhanyan S students

S. Prokhorov report "System Programming in Computer Center of Academy of Sciences" was dedicated to the great programmers who worked in the Computer Center -
A. Ershov, S. Lavrov and V.Kurochkin, who founded 3 strong schools of system programming in Moscow, Novosibirsk and Leningrad. Most of the translators from high-level computer languages in Russia were written by their commands.
E. Proydakov in his report, "Remembering M. Donskoy" described some of the brightest moments associated with him. In particular about the project "Kaissa" - computer program, which won the first chess World Championship for computers.

Proydakov E., Khetagurov A.

Report of Yu. Rogachev "M. Kartsev - continuer of Brook ideas" talked about computers, created under the leadership M. Kartsev that have outstanding specification, while they were designed on element basis far from the best quality which provides Soviet industry. Nevertheless, these computers had high reliability, performance and large memory.
Report of I. Kraynev "History of Informatics in the works of academician A. Ershov" was devoted to the archives of A. Ershov, that stored now in the institute named by his name. A. Ershov was a multifaceted personality, many events in the history of national informatics associated with his name, many little known facts we know because his archive has large number of documents.

Smolevitskaya Marina Krayneva Irina

Report of B. Malashevich"Conservation and the work of the museum of Angstrom" was devoted to the specialized computers that have been were produced at the plant.
The report A.Khetagurov "Developing of mathematical models of real-time computer systems" has concerned to the evolution of computer systems, system reliability and cost of expenses for their maintenance.
Speech of A. Rozhnov was devoted to a new new serie of books and magazines, united by a common theme - the "intellectualization of complex systems", that began to issue "Radiotekhnika" publishing house.

Khetagurov A.

Program the next conference to be held at the Polytechnic Museum on December 4, 2010 will be devoted to the tasks which were solved with help of the first computers. First and foremost it were the tasks related to mathematical physics, biology, mathematical linguistics.